Objective orientated evaluation of landscape scenariosas basis for management
Prof. Dr. B. Jessel, Dipl.-Geoökol. Jörg Jacobs, Potsdam University
The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) pursues an integrated approach that requires considerations about landuse management in river basins as reference areas. In this context, synergies as well as conflicting interests between the different kinds of landuse (farming, forestry, nature conservation, mining, settling and water economy etc.) can occur.
Especially the requirements of another EU directive, the Fauna-Flora-Habitat Directive, which aims at a "favourable conservation status" in the areas protected under the Directive, have to be taken into consideration.
An integrative approach is used for the sub-project. The requirements of different landusers will be analysed with regard to their spatial dimensions and brought together on the background of overall landscape concepts and hierarchies of objectives. This will lead to scenarios of different possible developments and their effects on current landuse patterns To do so it is necessary to put results of other sub-projects (especially SP1 and SP11)into spatial reference.
After evaluation of scenarios, management concepts will be derived. That step will be done in focal areas at first. Than the chances of upscaling this results to greater spatial units ("medium level") and to the entire test area will be tested.
Reasons for management options will be grounded in close cooperation with sub-project 2. They will be important input values for multicriterial analyses of alternative management strategies (SP10).
The developed management concepts can only be realized together with landusers. Public participation is an institutional innovation of WFD. Just until now only a restricted number of so-called "carrier of public interests" are participating in water management planning. That’s why the involving of "stake-holders" – representing important societal groups - is an important part of this sub-project. Members of these groups will be interviewed to get information about their opinions and values. That information will be taken into consideration during formulating objectives (overall concepts) and scenarios (participative development of landscape objectives).
The second purpose of the interviews is to get feedback about suggested management options (acceptance analyses in cooperation with SP10). In this way experiences about demanded information and consultation of public will be gathered and documented.
Planned tasks and applied methods
A. Compiling of relevant information about nature ressources and deriving space referenced landscape ecological units
Starting point is the current landuse pattern determined by remote sensing datas (SP6). Furthermore it is necessary to upraise available data about the biotic and abiotic inventory of focal areas to show landscape potentials. Relevant parameters (especially kind of soil, high and ground water level) have to be overlayed, so that test areas can be divided into units with relatively homogenous properties. That units are appropriate to indicate the given potentials with regard to natural balance and landuse. They are the spatial basis for developing of landscape objectives and management concepts.
Besides that it is necessary to analyse the legal and administrative framework in the test areas (e.g. objectives of regional and landscape planning) that have to be integrated into the developing process of scenarios.
B. Developing of overall concepts for test areas
At first the defined objectives have to be revered to the components of natural balance: soil, ground and surface water, flora and fauna. Result is an overall concept of nature conservation. The second step is to bring together this conservational concept with socio-economical and water management requirements to create an integrated system of landscape objectives.
C. Defining scenarios in cooperation with other sub-projects
The definition of frame conditions for scenarios has to be coordinated with all other participating sub-projects (especially SP1, SP2, SP10 and SP11). It is necessary to discuss different possible developments of landscape and the need for action regarding the requirements of WFD.
The scenarios should include different landuse patterns, optimised with regard to different settings of priorities (different weightings of water economical, agricultural and conservational aspects).
D. GIS-based representation of scenario development and evaluation
Effects of scenarios on landuse patterns will be displayed and evaluated by using geographical information systems. Landscape ecological units allow a spatial visualization of comparisons
- between declared objectives and current state and
- between objectives and different landuse scenarios.
E. Compiling and analysing of planning and administrative instruments for realisation of preferred scenarios
In this step, different planning and administrative options to implement the scenarios are analysed.
WFD appendix VI part II gives examples for directing management options to realize a "good surface water status" for all European waters. Taking into account these options, sets of measures have to be designed. This shall constitute a conceptional framework, that can be used e.g. to complete the concrete measures developed in SP 2. Landscape ecological units can be used to visualize a space referenced action concept for test areas that defines spatial priorities for actions (e.g. in the form of "functional areas" which partial functions are assigned to).
F. Process accompanied participative development of landscape objectives
This part of the sub-project will identify relevant frame conditions in the survey area. These information will contribute aspects of acceptance and possible implementation strategies to the aims and scenarios within the project.
At first there contacts to relevant actors must be built up (communities, farmers, interested organisations, citizens and different administrative bodies). Structured interviews with these actors will be carried out to gather and systemize relevant information about frame conditions, opinions, values etc.
The result of this sub-project will be the space referenced, GIS-based visualisation of different landuse scenarios and their evaluation based on a developed overall concept of landscape. The derived landscape potentials can be a basis for sustainable development – especially with regard to ecological considerations - that meets requirements of water economy and a good performance of farming.
All results will be an important part for the development of a GIS-based evaluation tool (SP8).
The realisation of sub-project 9 depends a lot on results and progress of other sub-projects. It is orientated according to the following time table:
Layout: W. Lahmer